The retina is a thin layer of tissue, lining the inner surface of the eye. It contains millions of light and color sensitive cells and other nerve cells that receive and organize visual information. The retina produces images and sends these images to brain.

Retinal Diseases:

Diabetic retinopathy

Senile macular degeneration (SMD)

Retinal detachment

Other diseases of the Retina and Macula (such as Central Serous Chorioretinopathy, Cystoid Macular Edema, Congenital Diseases and Tumours of the Retina)

Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) and Fundus Fluorescein Angiography (FFA) are quite important in the diagnosis of the diseases except of retinal detachment. OCT and FFA are not only guides for the physician in the diagnosis of the retinal disease, they are also important in follow up after the treatment.

There are two main types of retinal vascular diseases: Diabetic Retinopathy and Retinal Artery-Vein Occlusion.

The treatment of the retinal vascular diseases includes intraocular injections and/or Argon Laser photocoagulation. They are required depending on the disease process and the systemic status of the patient.

Retinal Detachment develops when the inner layer of rods and cones is separated from the Retinal Pigment epithelium (RPE). Intraocular fluid spreads into the space between the retina and the RPE and causes these two layers to separate. A Retinal Detachment is also more likely to occur in people have extremely myopic eyes. It usually develops after a blunt trauma on the eye. The patients may notice flashing lights, floaters, one or more black moving dots and little cobwebs in their field of vision.

A Retinal Detachment is a medical emergency and should be treated urgently. If not treated correctly, it can result in permanent vision loss. Minor Retinal Detachments might be treated with Argon Laser Fhotocoagulation, but in larger detachments surgical treatment is necessary.

Macular Disease is the major cause of severe vision loss in people over age 60. In the dry (nonexudative) form, cellular debris called drusen accumulates between the retina and the choroid. In the wet (exudative) form, which is more severe, abnormal blood vessels grow up from the choroid behind the retina. These new blood vessels often leak blood and fluid. This leakage causes permanent damage to light-sensitive retinal cells. Several treatment options including intraocular injections and/or laser are available.

It is an important diagnostic tool in the diagnosis of retinal vascular disease.

Following the enlargement of pupil with eye drop, sodium floresein is injected via opening vascular access. Afterwards retinal vessels are observed about ten minutes. Using angiography drugs may rarely cause allergic reactions. Inform your doctor in advance if you have a known allergy.

After operation there will be yellow-orange coloration in the skin, mouth and urine. This will be temporary and the drug excreted from your body with plenty of liquid intake. The most common side effects are nausea, vomiting and rash usually does not require treatment. Moderate reactions are seen less often. Serious reactions are very rare. Anaphylactic shock is a situation that occurs with sudden drop in blood pressure. It may be occurring very rare.